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Leavell and Clark's THREE LEVEL OF PREVENTION

  1. PRIMARY PREVENTION- Generalized health promotion and specific protection against diseases. It precedes disease or dysfunction and is applied to generally healthy individuals or groups

Examples:

Ø Health education about accident and prevention, standards of nutrition and growth and development, protect against occupational hazards, and so on.

Ø Immunization

Ø Risk assessments for specific disease

Ø Family planning services and marriage counseling

Ø Environmental sanitation and provision of adequate housing, recreation, and work conditions

  1. SECONDARY PREVENTION- Emphasizes early detection of disease, prompt intervention, and health maintenance for individuals experiencing health problems. Includes prevention of complications and disabilities.

Examples:

Ø Screening surveys and procedures of any type

Ø Encouraging regular medical and dental checkups

Ø Teaching self examination for breast and testicular cancer

Ø Assessing the growth an development of children

Ø Nursing assessment and care provided in home, hospital or other agency to prevent complications (e.g., maintaining skin integrity; turning; positioning; and exercising clients; ensuring adequate rest; food and fluid intake; promoting fecal and urinary elimination; administering medical therapies such as medications)

  1. TERTIARY PREVENTION- Begins after an illness, when a defect or disability is fixed, stabilized or determined to be irreversible. Its focus is to help rehabilitate individuals and restore them to an optimum level of functioning within the constraints of the disability.

Examples:

Ø Referring a client who has had a colostomy to a support group

Ø Teaching a client who has disabilities to identify and prevent complications

Ø Referring a client with a spinal chord injury to a rehabilitation center to receive training that will maximize use of remaining abilities.

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